art and industry: novel approaches to the evaluation and development of cleaning systems for artists\' acrylic latex paints.

by:Cleanmo      2020-03-11
Since they introduced in the middle
1950 s, water-based acrylic lataints--
Commonly referred to as acrylic emulsion paint--
Widely adopted by artists. (1)
They have good stability as a class of materials and are highly resistant to deterioration, discoloration, brittle and/or mechanical failure.
However, new materials pose new challenges for those involved in art conservation and restoration.
David hawkney, a famous British painter-
One of the pioneers in the art application of acrylic resin ---
Detailed observation: one of the most common protective treatments for any work of art is surface cleaning ---
That is, the removal of dust, dirt and other build-ups and/or deposits over time.
Eventually, the building-
Up can damage the appearance of the pain so that cleaning treatment is required.
However, surface cleaning of acrylic emulsion painting is not a simple procedure for many reasons: * acrylic painting is rarely painted (
Different from traditional oil paintings);
Therefore, dust and dirt in the air are deposited directly on the surface of the paint.
Acrylic latex paint is usually soft at room temperature, and dirt will become deeply rooted-
In the worst case, the paint surface is permanently embedded.
Therefore, the distance between successful removal of dirt and damage to the paint film may be small. [
Slightly] Illustrations
* Dirt deposition can be aggravated by greasy deposition on the surface, such as skin grease caused by improper treatment;
In fact, tenacious dark finger marks are not uncommon in acrylic painting.
* The artist\'s acrylic emulsion paint is sensitive to a large number of liquid reagents commonly used for surface cleaning of other artworks, and is susceptible to adhesive expansion and pigment removal during cleaning.
* The surface of modern and contemporary painting is usually subtle and subtle, the gloss and texture are subtly different from the appearance and consistency of the painting, and even the surface quality is slightly changed ---
Uneven finish by sanding/sanding or development--
There are big problems.
* Surface active substances originally present in the paint can migrate and gather on the surface, which may contribute to the retention of surface dirt, and the removal of surface dirt can also lead to the reduction of this original surface active substance.
Since the migrated surface agent can be considered as the \"original\" component of the paint, the surface agent that can be removed during the cleaning treatment is a somewhat controversial issue within the scope of protection: Practitioners generally
Therefore, one of the key challenges is to find cleaners that can avoid or minimize these risks, but they can also effectively remove dirt.
Usually, surface cleaning is done by gently scrolling or wiping lint, synthetic fibers, or foam cotton swabs that are moistened with a small amount of cleaning fluid on the surface of the paint (Figure 1).
In practice, finding the right cleaning system for a given painting is usually done by conducting temporary tests on an object that is not considered, combined with the expert intuition of the administrator;
The goal is to try to find a cleaning system that removes dirt at the appropriate speed and has an acceptable level of control over the surface finish.
Generally speaking, the range of chemical components relied on by the painting nursery in the formula cleaning system is relatively limited (
Surface active agent, pH regulator and regulator, Chelsea, electrolyte, simple organic solvent)
It is mainly promoted and adopted from the practice established for oil painting surface cleaning.
The previous study of acrylic latex paint cleaning in the protection industry relied mostly on simulating the actual cleaning process by carrying out separate cleaning tests by hand
Test the cotton swab with cleaning solution on the paint film (Figure 2a). (3)
Although this method of evaluating cleaning performance has the advantage of closely copying the normal cleaning process, it is manual --Time intensive
Consumption, and it is difficult to produce.
Nevertheless, there are very few studies of this type that have clearly indicated--
Although there are quite a big brandto-
Brand variability in paint recipes-use of water-
The risk based on the cleaner is to remove the migrated surface active substance from the paint surface and possibly from the bulk film.
Other issues highlighted in the study include the possible removal of pigments (
Especially organic pigments)
Paint expansion of organic solvent and water system.
In general, fat (non-aromatic)
Hydrocarbon Solvents were found to remove less surface active substances than water cleaning systems, resulting in a significantly reduced degree of swelling and minimal impact on the physical properties of the body membrane. (4)
However, films colored with organic pigments may show an increased trend without removing pigments
Use polar solvent. (5)
Although the cleaning effect is generally more benign from the impact on acrylic coatings (i. e.
, Ability to remove deposited dirt)
It was found that the content of the simple fat hydrocarbon system was significantly lower than that of the water system.
At the beginning of 2008, when scientists from the coating materials department of Dow Chemical Company began working with the Getty Protection Institute, an opportunity emerged to advance research on cleaning of acrylic painting (GCI)
At Tate in Los Angeles and London, it aims to develop more effective ways to clean works of art created with acrylic latex paint.
As the base product of acrylic house paint and many leading manufacturers of raw materials for house paint, cleaning products, art acrylic paint and protective materials, Dow is applying its expertise, design and evaluate the cleaning system with art conservation and conservation scientists in an attempt to preserve important works of art over the past 50 years.
One of the key innovations of this research collaboration is the application of Dow\'s high throughput (HTP)
Automatic formulation, testing, and analysis of facilities to re-simulate the manual cleaning process commonly used by administrators to evaluate the cleaning effect of liquids.
The HTP includes a complex set of automated hardware, software, and information research infrastructure that allows hundreds of samples to be prepared and analyzed in a relatively short period of time.
A set of integrated software programs is the backbone of the whole capability, which can realize complex experimental design, automatic material processing, data collection, data analysis, data storage, and finally, modeling and mining of large data sets.
In this collaboration, HTP tools in the coating and consumer product workflow were modified to prepare and screen hundreds of cleaning recipes for surface cleaning fine artacrylic coatings.
A key element of this work is the adjustment of ofDow\'s HTP cleaning robot to closely simulate the process of manually wiping the cleaning (Figure 2b).
Then, through the manual testing of the childcare staff, under the guidance and feedback of the Tate researchers, a parallel evaluation of the main candidates in each class of cleaning formulas was performed.
Three types of cleaning fluids were prepared and tested: water, fatty hydrocarbon solvent and water-in-
Oil emulsion.
Water and fat hydrogen carbon solvent target-
The choice based on is to develop a system with the best cleaning effect in order to reduce the contact time with the paint surface during the cleaning process.
Ideally, only volatile components can ensure full evaporation from the paint surface after cleaning.
However, in practice, the nurse usually relies on the addition of non-volatile components to the cleaning system and then attempts to completely remove any residue from the preparation after use.
In addition, by designing experiments, the effect of additive concentration and solution conductivity on cleaning effect was systematically explored, aiming to minimize potential damage to system residue and dry paint film. [
Figure 1 slightly][
Figure 2:[
Figure 3 slightly]Water-in-
Oil emulsion is a relatively new material category for painting protection.
They are stably dispersed by the fluid and thermodynamics of the oil (
In this case, the aliphatichydrocarbon solvent)
The size of the water is within the range of several hundred, so the water tends to form a clear system.
They usually contain surface active substances and co-
Helps to increase the capacity of solvents and waterphases.
The emulsion is identified as a group of materials that can solve the water shortage
Based on the fatty hydrocarbon solvent system.
In the traditional cleaning solution, the water system has a more powerful cleaning effect, but it is more risky for the paint film.
As mentioned earlier, it is well known that the water system is particularly easy to remove the original material from the paint surface.
Exposure to the water will also temporarily change the physical properties of the paint film and the long-term
The term meaning of water exposure and removal of surface active substances from the paint matrix is still unknown.
Fatty hydrocarbon solvent-
The system based is considered to have less impact on the original paint film, but has shown poor cleaning effect. [
Figure 4 slightly]
In order to produce a kind of emulsion, the correct combination of the surface type
The solvent type and solvent must be found and customized according to the specific application.
In the initial screening, a commercial microemulsion designed for industrial cleaning, INVERTTM 5000, was studied. (6)
This system shows high cleaning efficiency, but the gap from the paint film is poor due to low volatility.
In addition, it was noted that this resulted in the removal of pigments on some manually evaluated samples.
A series of waterin-
Oil emulsion was then prepared and tested using HTP equipment. The purpose of these new materials is to provide art protection personnel with an improved and/or alternative method of cleaning modern art works, especially those that are water-sensitive.
In this article, an overview of this research collaboration outlines a method for quantifying and partitioning the clean efficacy of water, fatty hydrocarbon solvents, and waterin-
Oil bag-
Dirty acrylic paint film cleaning solution based on HTP tools and software.
Subsequently, an overview was given of the manual evaluation of further testing of these systems under more natural protection treatment conditions.
The overall goal of the experimental high-throughput evaluation of the cleaning effect of the HTP method is to design a method that reliably simulates manual swab cleaning of painted surfaces, this method is repeatable, quantitative, and allows for the rapid screening of a large number of cleaning solutions.
The general HTP workflow is listed in the schematic diagram in figure 3.
Sample preparation for HTP cleaning assessment all HTP cleaning assessments are in fil from gold heavy body acrylic titanium white paint, cast ontoglass slides to dry film thickness of about 200 pm
Dry cast coating film in a controlled environment of 25 [degrees]
C/50% RH, at least 30 days before coating with an artificial soil mixture prepared according to a preparation developed in earlier studies (Table l). (7)
The artificial soil mixture is prepared by mixing the solid and liquid components together and then using a foam applicator brush on a dry paint film.
Two applications of soil provide a mediumto-heavy coating.
Then, dry the dirty membrane for seven days before HTP cleaning assessment.
In developing a sample preparation method for htp cleaning assessment, it is important to determine the time of the application of the test paint film drying (i. e. , coalesce)
Completely, because this factor controls the time period between paint film preparation, artificial soil application, and HTP testing.
Also of interest are the migration and deposition of surface active substances on the surface of the paint. (8), (9)
Therefore, during the development phase of HTPproject, atomic force microscopy was used to monitor the change of the coating film over time during the initial stage of drying (AFM)(Figure 4).
The appendix gives detailed information on the AFM method of gold heavy body acrylic titanium white coating and the results of selection.
A series of water and fat hydrocarbons-
The cleaning effect based on the cleaning solution was tested using the HTP method.
In addition, a commercial and a series of newly formulated waterin-
Oil phase emulsion was checked.
These formulas are prepared manually, or are prepared using a robotic liquid handler during HTP work.
The formula tested is based on raw materials, including new materials currently used in the field of chemicals and protection for artistic protection (Table 2). [
Figure 5 Slightly]
HTP cleaning device used in this work (Figure 5)
Consists of a touching head
Parts with up to 24 \"brushes\" can be gently touched with the base plate to be cleaned (
In this case, the acrylic coating film that is artificially dirty).
The dirty colored film is clamped at the bottom of the fixture to form 24 non-
Communicablecells, each capable of receiving a small amount of clean liquid through an automatic pipetting tube.
The device is programmed so that the head (
Contact the dirty paint surface with a brush)
In y-
Specifies the direction of the number of cycles.
The cleaning robot allows to clean 24 positions on each test paint film at the same time as close-down
The same physical conditions: Each location is treated with the same amount of cleaning fluid, the same applied pressure, the same speed and the same amount of cleaning cycles. [
Figure 6 slightly]
The \"brush\" used here is selected in order to be similar to the composition and hardness of the cotton swab commonly used to bypass the protector.
They are inside the foam (
Cover with cotton wool.
Similarly, in order to simulate the actual process of cleaning artwork that usually uses a low liquid volume, the number of cleaning solutions is standardized to 50 ul per cell.
The speed at which the robot cleans the strokes is one second per stroke.
Evaluation for water
Four basic cleaning solutions (
Two passes back and forth)
Solvent for fatty hydrocarbons-based systems--
Usually less active than water preparations-24 strokes (
12 times back and forth)were used.
A new cleaning swab is used for each cleaning test. [
Figure 7 Slightly]
Quantification of cleaning efficacy the cleaning efficacy of each test liquid is quantified by measuring the color appearance difference between the original dry objects (unsoiled)
Paint, dirty paint and washed paint.
The color difference is calculated from the cie l * a * B * measurements that come from the digital image of the paint film under each condition.
Cleaning efficiency is defined as ratio ([Increment of E2]/[Increment of E1])
Difference between the two colors :[Increment of E1]--
Initial state and dirty (uncleaned)state; [Increment of E2]--
Color difference between dirty state and clean state.
Color Measurement is generated by scanning images using a dedicated Matlab analysis
Basic software developed by Dow\'s information research team.
Screenshot of the software (Figure 6)
Illustrates the process of obtaining clean efficacy data for each cell in a single test matrix.
For this type of analysis, the software allows the user to select the color space (XYZ, L*a*b*)
And the specific area of the sample to be analyzed.
In the example shown in Figure 6, the color value of the area inside each blue box is being measured.
Overall cleaning effect (% clean)
For any given liquid, it is determined as an average of a series of results (
Usually between 3 and 12)
Copy cells.
Sample preparation for manual evaluation of cleaning effect by administrator test paint film for subjective evaluation test paint film used in HTP study test paint film on substrate, number of brands tested, age, and method of staining used.
These samples are independently developed and as close as possible to the drawing surface.
This sample group is made of four brands of professional artist quality acrylic paint (
Winsor & Newton, Liquitex, Talens and Golden Artist colors)
10 oz pair for Fredrix
Use the gloss instrument adjustable film casters to fill the acrylic dispersion primer onto the dry film with a thickness of about 110 um.
A total of 23 samples-
Titanic (PW6)
And the moon yellow (PY3)--were evaluated.
All samples were sent out in 2003;
Some of them are heat aged before they get dirty in the Fisons 185HWC ambient oven (60 [degrees]C; 55% RH)for 16 weeks;
Under the Philips TLD 58 W/15,000 daylight fluorescent tube, other materials are illuminated for 16 weeks at 840 lux and UV components are filtered with acrylic sheets.
Assuming reciprocity, this is equivalent-
Exposed to normal Museum conditions for 50 years
After the initial stages of natural or accelerated aging, all samples were contaminated, not brushed in 2006.
After staining, all samples undergo three years of natural aging in dark conditions and are then used in the cleaning efficacy test.
The same artificial soil mixture is used for the subjective test of Tate, just like the HTP test of Dow (Table 1).
As described in the results section, the relative cleaning performance of a range of liquids is evaluated by manual testing and visual observation.
Results the preliminary development of the HTP cleaning method the repeatability of the HTP cleaning method was determined in a series of 11 repeated cleaning tests using four cleaning fluids, and it is expected that the performance will vary greatly (see Table 3).
Typical raw data of these trials (i. e.
, Digital image of soil samples cleaned by HTP robot)
As shown in Figure 7.
The standard deviation of the method is from [+ or -]5-10%.
This noise level is sufficient to distinguish the performance of the large number of clean solutions studied.
The goal of the HTP approach is to screen a large number of cleaning solutions and identify a smaller set of potential candidates.
Then, before commercializing, evaluate these potential candidates using a more traditional and rigorous approach, or in this case, advise the field of art protection.
The cleaning value of the prepared aqueouscleaning solution and the prepared fatty hydrocarbon solvent %-
The basic cleaning solution system is the same.
However, the performance that must be achieved in the significant morecleaning trick is related to the thevms PUFA (
Fatty hydrocarbons)formulation.
As described in the experimental section, the conditions for water and the equal carbon solvent
System-based adjustments were made to allow different performance to be achieved in each category: tests using water systems used four automatic cleaning brushes, while tests using naphtha-
System based on 24 pens.
The effects of various additives were also investigated (
Types of active substances on the surface, solvents, chelators, etc. )
Cleaning effect of water and naphtha
Based on cleaning preparation.
Table 4 lists a subset of the water cleaning fluid tested in the initial trial and lists the corresponding % clean values.
The cleaning effect of water preparations ranges from about 10% to 80%.
The highest performance water preparations in this group include 1% triammonia citrate and 1% [ECOSURF. sup. TM]
EH9, the latter substance is non-alcohol ester
APE surface active substances produced by Dow.
In the later stage of the project, further key research (
Report as follows)
Performed with this combined component to check the effect of surface active substance concentration, solution pH and conductivity on cleaning effect.
The automated instruments used in the Dowis HTP research project are supported by an integrated set of software programs, allows complex experimental design, automated material processing, data collection, data analysis, data storage, and finally modeling and mining large data sets.
Data visualization software is usually used for data analysis and mining.
The output example for this analysis is shown in figure 8.
In this figure, Miner3D is generated using the commercial software package (10)
The respective cleaning performance of the group formula is visually demonstrated.
The cleaning effect of each solution is expressed in the color and size of the molecule: the large blue circle represents high cleaning effect, and the small red circle represents low cleaning effect.
The variability of the cleaning performance of each cleaning solution in a set of repetitions is determined by x-
Shaft, representing the cleaning test of the same formula at different locations on the contaminated substrate.
The top right corner of each circle lists the actual cleaning efficacy of each replica in a set of products.
Finally, the software allows areas where the original images, dirty images, and clean images used [increment of E]
The color difference calculation will be viewed together with the measured performance results.
This type of data analysis allows HTP users to quickly view large amounts of data.
The influence of PH on cleaning effect the influence of pH on the effect of water cleaning system was studied with a series of water solution prepared with 0.
1 titration with diluted HCI or sodium hydroxide to an integral value in the range of pH 4 to 10.
Figure 9 summarizes the results, from which it can be seen that for this simple water/surface treatment system, the cleaning effect of the solution is significantly reduced compared to the solution above and below this pH range.
The effects of surface active substances and complexes concentrations were designed to explore the effects of surface active substances and ammonium citrate concentrations on the cleaning effect, which were also carried out using the HTP cleaning method.
In order to observe the main effects of independent variables or factors, a complete factorial design was performed (
Surface active substance level and ammonium citrate level)
In addition to identifying any interaction effects that exist between factors, on cleaning performance.
When the difference of one factor depends on the level of the other, it will have an interactive effect.
Test cleaning solution composition (
As shown in Table 5
Trials were conducted in three repetitions.
For this study, the number of clean strokes was reduced from 4 to 2 to improve the resolution between clean solutions with relatively high cleaning effect.
Model based on ecological environment concentration
SURFM EH9 surface active substance and ammonium citrate were developed with an R square value of 77%.
Surface active substance levels and ammonium citrate levels are significant in the cleaning effect model.
Also, Rose-
The product of independent variables is also important in the model.
This shows that there is indeed interaction between the pollutant level and the ammonium citrate level on the cleaning effect.
This can be visually seen in the predicted performance diagram based on the level of surface active substances and ammonium citrate (
As shown in Figure 10
When any additive is present at a low level, the cleaning effect is poor regardless of the level of other factors.
The content of ammonium citrate is directly related to the conductivity of the solution.
This correlation allows for a second model of the concentration and solution conductivity of the surface active substance of ECOSURF EH9.
This model has the same quality and important factors as the first model.
The figure in Figure 10 also shows the predicted performance of a solution based on conductivity.
The formula space for predicting the highest cleaning performance is 1wt % ECOSURF eh9 and 0. 75-
Ammonium citrate 1wt % and 7. 5-
The conductivity of the solution is 10 MS/cm.
The cleaning efficacy model prediction was validated in subsequent cleaning trials.
This analysis across foreign recipe spaces provides practitioners with information on the trade-offs between surface active substance loading, solution conductivity, and overall cleaning performance. [
Figure 8:[
Figure 9 omitted[
Figure 10 slightly]
Performance of naphtha
Identification of effective fat hydrocarbons solvent based on cleaning system
It turns out that the base-based cleaning solution is facing a bigger challenge than the aqueous system.
In general, adding conventional Surface Active Agents and oxidation solvents to VM & P Naphtha can lead to systems with relatively poor cleaning performance.
However, a new type of non-ionic Poly is added to the formula composed of vm & P Naphtha (ethyleneoxide)/co-poly(butylene oxide)surfactant (EOBO)
With linear twelve ester (LAS)
The HTP test found that the performance has improved (Table 6).
It is found that the experimental and commercial grades of EOBO materials have similar properties;
The best ratio (%wt)
According to the HTP test results, 1% LAS + 3% EOBO. (
Note: The experimental grade of non-ionic surface active substances was obtained by EOBO inheritance;
Commercial class has a trade name SatinFX [TM]). Water-in-
The oil micro-emulsion gives a limited enhancement of the cleaning performance, which is usually achieved by simply adding surface active substances to the fatty carbohydrate solvent (naphtha)
Alternative ways to develop naphtha
Exploring basic cleaning systems including waterin-
Oil emulsion.
The initial focus was on the existing Dow.
Emulsion products]TM]
5000. development in the medium term1990s. (12)
As with all true microemulsion, INVERT 5000 is a preparation that is stable and transparent in thermodynamics;
It\'s made of water, naphtha-
Ionic surface active substance, alcohol ether-
Solvent and other minor components.
Based on the most effective water and mineral spiritual system identified in the htp method, the performance of the emulsion product was evaluated.
In this comparative study, the number of cleaning trips for water and hydrocarbon solvents remained the samebasedsystems. The results (Table 7)
It is proved that the cleaning effect of the micro-emulsion system is significantly higher than the pure VM & p Naphtha and VM & P Naphtha EOBO surface active agent Formula discussed in the previous section.
In addition, from a statistical point of view, cleanliness can reach the same level as the water system with the highest efficiency.
As discussed, the HTP test method is designed to quickly screen a large number of clean solutions.
Then, through preliminary field trials conducted at tate using the established preservation swab rolling technique, a highly rated HTP cleaning system was further evaluated.
This stage is important in protecting the development of new products, because the factors that affect success naturally increase the quantity and complexity as the assessment is closer to the process of protecting and restoring artwork.
In this study, the system application of a series of cleaning systems using a uniform size cotton swab system provides supplementary information for HTP trials by obtaining information from the following assessments: 1.
Visual assessment of relative cleanliness (
Soil Removal effect)
After 8 x cotton swab roll--
This is most directly related to the htp results. 2.
Clean the paint film to the number of swab rolls required to select the stop point--i. e.
The stage of \"completely clean ---
When: The sample is acceptable clean/pigment is removed/recorded from the paint film at the bottom/expansion of the paint film/surface change/damage is recorded/100 cotton swab has been applied3.
Visual assessment of the relative degree of pollution removal in the \"complete clean\" phase. 4.
Apply the relative degree of the \"change/damage\" score to the paint film: e. g.
, Combined with the effects of paint removal, gloss change, expansion and/or wear on the surface of the paint. 5.
Evaluation of the treatment performance of the cleaning solution: wiping effect, control, surface wetting and consistency of clearance after application.
Table 8 contains the results of all subjective cleaning assessments.
The first evaluation is similar to the HTP system in-8 swab rolls (
Composed of 8x1 forward and backward cotton swab rolls).
Each cleaning solution is applied to 23 stained test paint canvas samples, and the results are judged by the eyes and carried out in a ratio of 1 to 10, of which 10 are the most effective systems for removing dirt (Column A).
Eight swab rolls did not clean many samples to a large extent;
As a result, the highest rating is 5/10.
Nevertheless, the solution with the highest score in terms of cleaning efficacy is neat and diluted [conversion]TM]
5000 emulsion.
The second most effective cleaning solution consists of a combination of surface active substances and position agents, followed by a variety of simple water systems, non-polar fats-
The rating based on the solution has been poor.
The performance of the different cleaning solutions in this evaluation is consistent with the results of the transplanted HTP system.
When judging the cleaning result of \"complete\" with eyes (Column D)
Mineral Spirit-
The base-based solution is still the least successful in removing dirt, and the inverted 5000 emulsion is the most successful in combination with the active substance on the water surface and the qualifying agent.
This simple set of water systems is also very clean.
Although the rating of SatinFX [is still relatively low]TM]
The/Las mineral oil cleaningefficacy combination provides an improved choice of ultra-pure mineral oil solvents.
It should also be noted that the cleaning effect seems to depend in part on the wetting capacity of each cleaning solution, and the surface texture of the paint film also affects the relative ease of cleaninge.
Samples with regular flat surfaces are easier to clean.
Throughout the cleaning phase, any visible risks associated with each cleaning system were also observed.
This includes assessing issues that are critical to artistic protection, such as loss of pigment, expansion, and changes in paint surfaces.
To this end, a rating system was developed to indicate the level of \"change/damage\" caused (Column E).
The least number of solutions poses the highest risk. -
The combined loss of pigment, loss of paint, change of gloss and surface wear were recorded.
The highest ranking (10)
Solutions attributed to no damage/change found during or after cleaning.
The difference was further refined according to the number of affected samples;
Therefore, if a particular solution causes a change/damage to only one sample, the rating is lower than the one that repeatedly causes the change/damage.
Not surprisingly, these \"risk\" observations have had a negative impact on the ratings of some systems.
For example, the highest rated INVERT 5000 in terms of cleaning effect is relatively poor in terms of change/damage.
Using the system, 17 of the 23 samples tested recorded pigment transfer and subsequently decreased to 6 samples when using the dilution system.
In terms of cleaning efficacy, the combination of active substances and AO mixture on the water surface has also been highly evaluated.
However, they are often affected by blistering on the paint surface, which results in poor visibility during the cleaning process and has prompted concerns that there is enough clearance on the paint surface.
The simple water system does not appear to cause any visible damage/change during or after treatment.
In the mineral spirits system, the SatinFX/LAS mixture is well rated for low damage potential, so there may be some uses in the case of the system and waterin-
Oil emulsion is not suitable.
It is worth noting that in all cases the migrated surface active substances are removed to a certain extent.
However, the amount of solvent removal-
The system-based system is easier to lose luster than all systems containing water, including the INVERT5000 microemulsion system. Custom-
According to the overall performance of the first tested emulsion, the emulsion system was formulated, which was originally designed for industrial cleaning applications, and the purpose of the customized microemulsion was to maintain a high level of cleaning effect, at the same time, the potential defects of acrylic polymer pigment transfer and expansion found in subjective test tests are minimized.
In order to achieve this goal ,[TM]
The solvent present in the initial emulsion was replaced with 1-butanol and 1-
Hexyl alcohol has lower boiling point, faster evaporation rate and lower solubility in acrylic polymer.
The high volatility of alcohol is also beneficial, as this will help minimize the cleaning steps for cleaning the solution.
Fatty hydrocarbon solvent-
Fundamental continuous phase changes have also taken place from VM & P naphtha to Shellsol [TM]
With a lower steaming rate, the D38 will provide the administrator with more time to perform the cleaning procedure.
Software Application Library studio (Accelrys)(13)
Emulsion formulation for design preparation using HTProbotic liquid treatment procedure (
Hamilton Microstar lab. (14)
Preparation is prepared on a small scale using 1.
96-2 ml glass bottles
Well-formatted, arranged by 12 columns array into 8 rows.
96-per group-
The well bottle is called inside the plate.
Figure 11 is a visual representation shown at 96-
Wellplate design.
The concentration of shellac D38 per plate remains constant, and multiple plates are prepared to test different quantities of shellac D38.
Concentration of surface active substances, co-solvent (alcohol)
The salt on each plate is different. A mixture of 1-butanol and1-
Hexyl alcohol is used as a total
The ratio between the solvent mixture and the two owas varies in different levels of surface active substances to assess the effect of the hydrophobic on the formation of a stable emulsion.
To keep the total weight constant, water was added to each vial.
Surface concentration, salt concentration, D38 concentration of shellac, total co-
Solvent concentration and co-
The solvent ratio was investigated.
This resulted in a total of 432 different micro-simulation components.
Table 9 lists the recipe ingredients, the order of addition, and the level of concentration for each ingredient.
In order to prepare the formula, the Reserve solution of LAS and NaCI inwater was prepared using the Hamilton Microstar liquid processing robot at the required concentration.
Calibrate each material to correlate the amount of each volume allocated with the required mass.
This is done using a weighing robot by assigning known volumes of liquid to a glass bottle and reallocating it
Weighing vials.
To estimate calibration errors, three copies are repeated for each calibration volume set.
The relationship between the target volume and the actual weight of the material used here is linear within the range of the distribution used.
[Robot heating station] at50 has been useddegrees]
C. LAS stock solutions that facilitate the distribution of centralized (25-35 wt%).
The prepared formula is shaken vigorously by hand and allows for overnight balance at room temperature.
A clear-looking sample and
The phase was then cleaned using the HTP system.
Image collection of formulas using proprietary high-throughput phase recognition and representation robots (PICA II).
Photos of each preparation are collected within at least 24 hours of preparation.
Figure 12 shows a representative set of these images.
14 out of 432 preparations form stable waterin-
Oil emulsion (
Clear example, stable formula circle).
Emulsion with the lowest total co content
Solvent levels with a mixing ratio of 3. 3% 1-hexanol and 6. 7% 1-
A stable micro-emulsion is formed with alcohol.
In addition, with a high level of 1-
Number 1 and number 1
Hexyl alcohol can also form a stable emulsion.
In general, the presence of NaCI in the preparation did not lead to a stable micro-emulsion structure.
Level of surface active substances (LAS)
The content of Shellsol D38 does not seem to affect the stability of the emulsion.
This result shows that in the case of a limited number of possible experimental samples, it is difficult to identify stable microemulsion structures through a more traditional bench-top method.
A preliminary test was conducted on 14 new lotions using the htp cleaning method, and the results showed that they had excellent cleaning effect.
At present, Tate is conducting a comprehensive evaluation of these new lotions through a manual test protocol.
Based on the trials outlined, this multifaceted assessment will determine whether these cleaning solutions adequately balance the performance required for the treatment of acrylic emulsion painting art works.
The results of this manual test will be reported in a separate communication. [
Figure 11 omitted][
Figure 12:
Conclusion a method has been developed to quantify and distinguish the learning effects of traditional and novel water, non-biological carbon solvents, and waterin-
Oil emulsion-
High-throughput tools and methods using Dow Chemical are based on cleaning systems.
By screening hundreds of formulas on high-throughput tools, cleaning solutions with good cleaning efficacy have been identified from all three types of formulas.
The results from the high-throughput method were verified by the protective cleaning treatment established in Tate London, where the performance of different cleaning solutions was very consistent with the results produced on high-throughput equipment.
An important discovery of this preliminary work is the identification of waterin-
As a potential new cleaning formula, oil emulsion can provide high cleaning effect through naphtha
Based on continuous stages.
In Tate\'s manual test tests, in addition to the ability to remove oil, the potential risk of a clean formula to acrylic coating film was assessed.
Trial of original microemulsion (INVER [TM]5000)
Due to changes in pigment removal and surface gloss, the risk of testing acrylic coatings is high.
In order to meet the performance standards of all the requirements of high cleaning efficiency and low potential risk, a new emulsion has been developed.
These new lotions were found to have excellent cleaning efficacy in HTP testing and are currently being evaluated by Tate for their cleaning performance.
Overall, cooperation between the three institutions (Dow, Tate. GCI)
Is a unique skill set that provides a key solution for the art conservation community.
This work demonstrates the application of high-throughput methods in the scientific application of art conservation.
Finally, it identifies promising new partner laws and materials for cleaning in protection. References (1. )Crook. J. and Learner, T.
Influence of modern coatings.
London: Tate, 2000. (2. )Hockney, D.
Personal communication with Thomas J. S. Learner,2006. (3. )
Ormsby, B, learner, T, Foster, G. , Druzik. J.
And Sharon, M. , \"Wet-
Cleaning acrylic emulsion coating film: assessment of physical, chemical and optical changes, Modern coatings found at Tate Modern.
Getty Institute of Conservation, Los Angeles, 187-198, 2007. (4. )Ormsby, B. , Smithen, P. , Hoogland, F. , Learner, T.
, AndMiliani, C, \"Scientific Investigation of surface cleaning lotion painting\", at the three-year meeting of the pre-printed ICOM Protection Committee, New Delhi, September 2008, Vol. II,857-865, 2008. (5. )Ormsby, B. , Learner, T. , Foster, G. , Druzik. J.
M. anshilin.
, \"Wet cleaning acrylic emulsion coating film: physical evaluation.
Chemical and optical changes.
\"Modern paint found in Los Angeles: Getty Protection Institute, 189-200,2007. (6. )Klier, J. , Suarez, R. S. , Green, D. P. , Kumar, A. M. , Hoffman,M. , Tucker, C. J. , Landes, B.
And D Redwin.
, \"Cleaning properties of single-
Phase hydrocarbons-Based on microemul-
American petroleum chemist Soc, 74, 7, 861-867(1997). (7. )Ormsby, B. A. , Soldano, A. , Keefe, M. H. , Phenix, A. , andLearner T.
, \"An empirical assessment of a range of cleaners used to remove dirt from artist acrylic emulsion coatings,\" InProc.
Professional Group Meeting on painting, American Conservation Association conference, Milwaukee, 2010 (in press). (8. )Digney-Peer, S. , Burnstock, A. , Learner, T. , Khanjian, H. ,Hoogland, F. , and Boon, J.
, \"Migration of surface active substances in acrylic emulsion coating film.
\"In modern art, the new museum: contributions to the IIC Bilbao convention, 13-
September 17, 202-2007207,2004. (9. )Ormsby, B.
Kampasakali, E. , Miliani, C.
And learners, T. ,\"An FTIR-
Based on the exploration of the effect of wet cleaning artist acrylic emulsion paint
Meeting of RED People and Raman people (IRUG)
Vienna, 2008, Electronic
Preservation Science, 6,186-195, 2009. (10. )(11. )Harris, J. K. , Rose, G. D.
And Brunin, M.
L, \"Self-occurrence of multi-layer SAC bubbles from ethylene oxide/Ding dioxide two-block polymer\", langle, 18 (14)5337-5342 (2002). (12. )Shick, R. A.
\"Prepare cleaning agent with structural solvent\" in Proc \".
Precise cleaning 96, Anaheim, CA, 285-289,1996. (13. )(14. )[TM]
Trademark of Dow Chemical Company (\"Dow\")
Or subsidiary of Dow related articles: Appendix AFM monitor and test the drying and stability of the paint base (AFM)
Used to monitor changes in the surface of paint film at different time intervals between one day and 104 days after application.
The paint film is \"as is\" imaging and there is no preparation on the surface.
Cast film of gold heavy body acrylic titanium white paint stored in constant temperature/humidity laboratory, analyzed by AFM after 1, 5, 9, 12, 16, 25, 29 and 104 days
AFM images were obtained using brubruker D3100 large sample AFM and nano Mirror IV Controller in tap mode (Nano-
Scope Software v6. 13rl).
Silicon cantilever and tip of Silicon romasch (NSC16)
For imaging.
Height and phase images were collected.
Tapping mode AFM is a resonance mode in which the cantilever oscillates at a small amplitude at its basic resonance frequency.
When the tip touches the surface at a high frequency, it \"Taps \"(~150kHz).
The image of the attenuation amplitude provides a height signal.
At the same time, the phase when the oscillation Rod interacts with the surface is also mapped to a separate signal.
The phase image is complex and represents the contribution of local elasticity, adhesion or dissipation in the contact area.
The amplitude of free tapping Ao is-3 V.
When scanning, the amplitude setting point is 2.
It takes 2 v to get the rejection tip-
Surface interaction.
The scan size collected is 2. 5 x 2.
At five o\'clock P. M. , 5x5 um and 10x10 um, the pixel resolution is 256x256, 512x512 and 1024x1024, respectively.
When tapping the ModeAFM analysis, the light area of the paint sample in the phase image represents a harder area, and the dark area represents a relatively soft area.
AFM analysis showed that there was a significant change from 1 day to 25 days and a significant decrease thereafter.
The migration of active substances on the surface of gold heavy acrylic titanium white coating is relatively slow, and the overall level of active substances on the surface is relatively low.
After a day of drying by AFM, individual latex particles, pigments and dispersing agents/surface active substances are clearly visible in the AFM image (
Figure 4, left).
It is worth noting that the latex particles are in one-
Sun period.
With further sampling of this paint, the resolution of the AFM image becomes less clear, which is interpreted as the migration of the active agent to the paint surface.
Generally speaking, there is no significant difference between afmimage of 25-and 104-day-Old paint film.
Based on this evidence, the test paint is allowed to stabilize for 30 days before applying artificial soil and subsequent cleaning assessments.
Melinda Keve
Christopher Tucker, Anastasia Mardilovich, Greg Myers, Carl Reinhart, Tom Boomgaard, Bronwin omesby and Alexia Soldano from Peitsch Corey Dow Chemical, melinda Kiff, author of the Allen Fini and Thomas Lerner Getty Institute of Conservation in London, Christopher Tucker, annassia madilovic Bell, Greg Midland, United States, Ml;
Bronvin omesby and Alexia Soldano at the Tate in London, England;
Alan Fini and Thomas Lerner, Getty School of Music, Los Angeles, California, USA.
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