investigation of bacterial pathogens on 70 frequently used environmental surfaces in a large urban u.s. university.
The latest report on life Threat community The acquired bacterial infection emphasizes the need to identify the community surface of arerich in the bacteria and has the potential to carry pathogens ( Libanore, Bicocchi, Pantaleoni and Ghinelli, 2004; Lucano and Holden, 2006). The study is the first time a wide-ranging study has been conducted at a large city university in the Midwest. The position of the university is chosen for its large number of junior students Teenagers and adults, among whom athletes, are immune People who compromise and drug addicts can be found. Personal hygiene habits are not always optimal in this age group, which may lead to the spread of infectious diseases ( Drankiewiz and Dundes, 2003; Scott & Vanick, 2007). [ Slightly] Illustrations The environmental surface of the community can get a lot of traffic. These surfaces may support the growth of bacteria and may or may not be cleaned enough. Determining the number of bacteria and screening the presence of potential pathogens on the surface is the initial step to maintain the health of individuals exposed to the surface. The first purpose of this study was to identify the most concentrated and frequently used sites of bacteria in universities. The analysis was limited to bacteria grown on Mannitol salt Joan gel or Macon. These two media were used for the second purpose of determining the presence of two potential pathogenic bacteria S. aureus (MRSA) And food-promoting animals. Both species can be transferred from the surface of the environment to the human body. Our third objective was to test a hypothesis that the number of bacteria on the surface increased significantly throughout the working day. The study involved 70 universities with a surface population of about 25,000 people. The first pathogen of interest in this study-the incidence of S. aureus in the local area is increasing. The outbreak of S. aureus has attracted great attention from university sports teams and can be transmitted through direct contact ( Lucano and Holden, 2006). Methicillin-sensitiveS. If the skin barrier is penetrated, S. aureus can also cause various infections. In teenagers and adults in college, this kind of damage to acne, wounds or bruises is common. S is the result of S. S. aureus Resistance genes ( Mlynarczyk, Mlynarczyk and Jeljaszewicz, 1999). S. Long-term survival of S. aureus (days or months) In fabrics, plastics and Formica (Getchell- White, they are, and Grosehel, 1989; Neely & Maley2000). Transfer Efficiency of 42% and 41% grams Positive bacteria from the phone receiver\'s hand and mouth, respectively, indicate S. aureus is easily transferred from the surface to humans ( Rusin, Maxwell & Gerba, 2002). The second pathogen of interest. S. Bacteria, which can be used in tap water and tap water ( Orenstein, Consolacion, Amihod, Emerald mussels, and Miller, 2006; Sakhnini, Weissmann, Orun, 2002). For people with immune damage, this is opportunistic for people with lung disease ( Denton & kerr, 1998) Intravenous drug abuse ( Libanore, Bicocchi, Pantaleoni, Ghinelli, 2004). It has been recorded to cause a hospital infection ( Nicdemo & Garcia Paez, 2007). Materials and methods environmental surface sampling, selection of environmental surfaces for frequent use, conducted on Thursday for three consecutive weeks in 2007 Winter ( February 3, 10 th and 17 th). Select these dates for sampling in order to collect data on the health status of the personnel whose common surfaces of the University operate at the maximum occupancy rate and work within the building. 10 samples were taken in each group: Student desktop, computer keyboard, phone speaker, water dispenser drain, copier, vending machine and Button on elevator. From 6: 15, sampling each surface twice. m. Before use, after six hours, there were a total of 420 samples. A 10 [cm. sub. 2] Surface area ( If less than 10 [, the entire surface areacm. sub. 2]) Sampling with sterile saline Wet polyester. For the sample of the fountain drain, insert a damp swab 8- 10 cm enter the surface of the drain pipe and the internal drain pipe for three cycles. All samples were plated on the agar plate within three hours of collection. For all surfaces, place the swab in 2 ml of salt water, rotate for 45 seconds, and then place 0. Spread 5 ml of the sample on the agar plate. Continuous dilution for drainage samples ([0. sup. -1]to [10. sup. -8]) Preparation in brine, 0. Disperse the milliliters of dilution onto the agar plate. Culture of all agar plates 36-48 hours at 35 hours [degrees]C. Number of bacterial colonies-forming units (CFUs)was counted. Bacterial counts are standardized and expressed as CFUX [cm. sup. 2] Surface area of sampling. The density of bacteria is expressed as CFUXm [L. sup. -1]. Identification of bacteria S. aureus was identified as G- Cat-positive Positive and coagulation enzymespositive (Bacti-Staph[R]kit, Remel, KS) Colony Mannitolsalt Agar. S. Isolation strain aslactose-fermentation- Negative colonies of enzymesnegative( Beckkit, Picton Dickinson, BBL, MD) And esculinhydrolysis-positive ( Hadi diagnostics, California). S. Gram dry using micro scan- Negative ID panel (Dalberin, CA) Test of S. Colony of S. aureus using PBP2 test kit (Oxoid, UK) In clinical micro Biological Laboratory, Chicago Children\'s Memorial Hospital. To estimate the bacterial array obtained on Mannitol salt and macconkey agar plates used in environmental surface sampling, gram- Staining of S and the above test S. and S. maltophilia. Swabbing conducted a pilot study on sub-sample pilot studies to reduce the impact of bacterial counts, to see if the afternoon count of bacteria reflects the accumulation of the day and the bacteria remaining after swabbing technology this study reduced the bacterial court to zero at noon on the working day, the effect of wiping the surface is measured by sampling the computer keyboard and phone mouth sheet. Within 1 to 2 months and 2 sets (swab 1 and 2) Plated to the agar plate within two hours of collection. Statistical analysis of the original data represented by colony counts per surface area (CFUX[cm. sup. -2]) Because our research focuses on the density of the surface at some point, we analyze it. Processing of standardized data for descriptive statistics and comparison[chi]. sup. 2] Or use the Prostat software to test the Wilcoxon signature level of the paired data (Version 4. 0, Poly Software International NY) The meaning is set to p [ Less than or equal to]. 05. Results macconyl Agar bacteria were isolated from all 10 water dispenser drains. 80% of the drain pipe contains a biofilm, which is evidenced by the film visible on the swab. The bacterial count of the drainage sample is from 1. 0 x [10. sup. 2]to 1. 0 x [10. sup. 5]CFUxm[L. sup. -1]. S. The bacteria are in the canal of 60%. Figure 1 shows the average number of bacterial colonies- Forming units per surface (CFUx[cm. sup. -2]) Sampling surfaces from universities The average number of bacteria in phone mouthwash is the highest. Table 1 shows descriptive statistics of bacteria recovered on mannitol salt agar on all surfaces other than drain pipes. The number of personal samples of telephone mouthparts is the highest. For the samples on the computer keyboard, the proportion of bacteria positive is the highest. As reported in the first row of table 2 ,[[chi]. sup. 2] The analysis showed that the number of bacteria in the mouth increased significantly (p